Kalischer, Tzevi Hirsch
- (1795-1874)German rabbi and Zionist pioneer. He was born in Lissa, in the Posen district, and settled in Thorn in 1824. An opponent of Reform Judaism, he advocated Jewish settlement in Palestine, and in Derishat Zion argued for the establishment of a Jewish agricultural society there. In 1864 he was responsible for the founding in Berlin of the Central Committee for Palestine Colonization. He believed that Jewish redemption would come about through human endeavour before the coming of the Messiah. His publications deal with rabbinic topics and Zionism.
Dictionary of Jewish Biography. Dan Cohn-Sherbok.
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Gutmacher, Elijah — (1796 1874) Polish Zionist. He was born in Borek. He served as a rabbi in Pleschenitsy and Grodzisk Wielkopolski. His studies of the kabbalah led him to the view that the Jewish return to Palestine was necessary to purify Jewry from the… … Dictionary of Jewish Biography